A STUDY OF OLIVER TWIST’S DEPRESSION FOUND IN OLIVER TWIST BY CHARLES DICKENS

CHAPTER I

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

This chapter consists of two subdivisions; they are background of the problem and research problem. As following they are presented:

 

Background of the Problem

Depression is a state of low mood. Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable or restless. They have no any interesting sense, uninterested for doing activities that once were pleasurable, experience loss of appetite, or problems concentrating, remembering details or making decisions; and may contemplate or attempt suicide. Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, loss of energy, pains or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may be present.

The writers are very interested in Oliver Twist, as its book is very well known that time. Moreover Oliver Twist has been the subject of most film and television adaptations, and is still the basic for a highly successful musical play, and the multiple Academy Award winning 1968 motion picture Oliver!

 

Oliver Twist is the second novel by Home author Charles Dickens, published by Richard Bentley in 1838. Its book exposed the Cruel Treatment of many a waif-child in London, which Increased international concern in what is sometimes known as “The Great London Waif Crisis”: a number of orphans in London in the Dickens era.

The writers are interest in analyzing Oliver Twist since its novel is notable for Dickens’ unromantic portrayal of criminals and their sordid lives. So he gets several problems and conflict while he is trying to get his freedom.

Depression is a major risk factor for suicide. The deep hopelessness that goes along with depression can make suicide feel such as the only way to escape the pain. Thoughts of death or suicide are a serious symptom of depression, so take any suicidal talk or behavior seriously.

Here in Oliver Twist, depression feeling appears from beginning until the end of its story therefore the writer is interested in making a study of depression feeling.

1.2 Research Problem

In this part the writers formulate three problems. They can be seen bellow :

  1. What are the symptoms of Oliver Twist’s depression?
  2. What are the causes of Oliver Twist’s depression?
  3. How are the effects of Oliver Twist’s depression?

CHAPTER II

 

REVIEW OF RELATED THEORIES

This chapter consists of Literary Appreciation, Character, Conflict and Depression. The explanation can be seen below :

2.1 Literary Appreciation

Literary appreciation refers to the evaluation of works of imaginative literature as an intellectual or academic exercise (Ogunlewe, 2006: 88-91).

It is a process by which a reader interprets, evaluates or classifies a literary work with a view to determining the artistic merits or demerits of such a work. Sometimes, literary appreciation is also referred to as literary criticism, literary exegesis, textual analysis or practical criticism, the last term being a reference to only one aspect of the exercise, for, theory is implicit in any practice.

Based on the theory above, the writer concludes that appreciation of literature is base on understanding that literature is useful in the literature. There are values of life and have a sensivity feeling to problem of live. By reading literature we can getting the message and understand the character that exist in the literature. Social themes of poverty was raised in a variety event. Oliver twist popular because Charles Dickens lived in poor society and the life of childhood unhappy have a strong character in this novel.

Literature doesn’t automatically emerged in the process creation, the author establish the various constituent elements. This is party to the fact that for the present reading public Charles Dickens practically the only of his long line that is read at all. Dickens mixed up with the old material, material so subtly modern, so made of the Industrial Revolution, that the whole transformed. If we want the best example of this is Oliver Twist. Relatively to the other work of Dickens. Oliver Twist is not of great value but it is of great importance, some parts of it are so crude and so clumsy a melodrama.

 

2.2 Character

The definition of character in literary work, each person, or each animal or subject treated like a person, is called a character. While characterization ( Jones, 1968: 84-85 ) is the act of introducing and developing characters in such a way as to make them real or believable.

There are two kinds of character :

  • A flat character, usually a minor one in the novel is constructed around a single idea or quality. His personality can often be expressed in a single sentence, and remains a type.
  • A round character, is a great achievement than flat character. A round character must be himself, an individual and he must be fitting his role. The round character must changes.

The function of this theory is to identify the characters of Oliver Twist’s Depression. By using this theory the writers can find Oliver Twist’s depression easily. Therefore the character can support the discussion.

2.3 Conflict

The definition of conflict is given to the kind of action in a novel or drama. Conflict appeals to the emotion of the reader, his feeling of joy and sorrow, pity or anger. It must make him feel.

According to Edward H. Jones, there are three kinds of conflicts. There are:

  • Physical conflict, between human being against the nature. It means that between human being against the nature in physical conflict. Because physic against physic. We mean here that someone that have a physic form against the nature. For the example : “When Oliver he headed for the London, he was completely exhausted. He had slept in the fields.” (Dickens, 2000:16)
  • Social conflict, between human being against another. It means that human against another human being. For example : “Oliver went deep red with anger, stood up, knocked over a chair and jumped on Noah. He hit Noah so hard that Noah fell down.” ( Dickens, 2000:13)
  • Psychological conflict, a conflict between her mind. It means that inside of human mind there is a conflict that he/ she has to decide and to solve. For example : “He(Oliver) thought about what he had been told if he complained. He would be sent to sea. To be sent to sea in Oliver’s time meant the captain could log him to death or knock his brains out with an iron bar for even a very small mistake. With these thoughts in his head Oliver entered the undertaker’s shop. It was closing time.” (Dickens, 2000:11)

 

This theory is to identify the conflict of Oliver Twist’s Depression. The writers conclude that Oliver Twist has social and psychological conflict, because he has conflict with his boss at the workhouses and the thief like (Fagin, Dodger, Charley Bates, Bill Sikes).

 

2.4 Depression

Depression is a physiological problem that can happen to everyone, children or adult. The levels of these can be influenced by, among other things, physical illnesses, genetics, hormonal changes, medications, aging, brain injuries, seasonal/light cycle changes, and social circumstances.

The Sign and Symptoms of Depression

Symptoms is an indication of a disease or other disorder, especially one experienced by patient. Everyone can be ill over a long period which has been signed by some symptoms. They can be seen bellow :

  1. Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness.

A bleak outlook, nothing will ever get better. There is nothing you can do to develop your situation.

  1. Loss of interest in daily activities.

You will have no interesting in hobbies, past times, social activities of sex or gender. You’ve lost your ability to feel joy and pleasure in your life.

  1. Appetite or weight changes.

The sense of weight loss or weight gain, a change of your body 5% weight in a month.

  1. Sleep changes.

Insomnia, especially waking in the early hours of the morning, or oversleeping (also known as hypersomnia).

  1. Irritability or restlessness.

Feeling restless. Your tolerance level is low; everything and everyone gets on your nervous.

  1. Loss of energy.

Feeling fatigued and physically drained. Your whole body may feel heavy, and even small tasks are exhausting or take longer to complete.

  1. Self-loathing.

Strong feelings of worthlessness or guilt. You harshly criticize yourself for perceived faults and mistakes.

 

  1. Concentration problems.

Trouble focusing, making decisions, or remembering things, talking about killing or harming one’s self.

  1. Unexplained aches and pains.

An increase in physical complaints such as headaches, back pain, aching muscles, and stomach pain.

 

 

Depression Causes and Risk Factors

Experts believe that depression is caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. In other words, your lifestyle choices, relationships, and coping skills matter just as much—if not more than genetics. However, certain risk factors make you more vulnerable to depression. So, cause is a reason or grounds for doing or feeling something. They can be seen bellow :

Causes and Risk Factors for Depression

  1. Loneliness

Loneliness is therefore a subjective experience, if a person thinks they are lonely, then she/he is lonely. People can be lonely while in solitude or in the middle of a crowd.

  1. Social isolation

Becoming cut off from family and friends may increase your risk of depression, or it may be a response to feeling depressed as the downward spiral takes hold.

  1. Stressful life events

Most people take time to come to terms with stressful events, such as bereavement or a relationship breakdown. When these stressful events happen, you have a higher risk of becoming depressed if you stop seeing friends and family and try to deal with problems on your own.

  1. Childhood trauma or abuse

Childhood traumas lie at the root of most long-term depression and anxiety, and many emotional and psychological illnesses.

 

 

The Effects of Depression

The effect is a change or changed state occurring as a direct result of action by somebody or something else. The negative effects of depression unhealthy behaviors or attitudes actually indications of depression. See the effect for some of the ways in an attempt to cope with their emotional pain. They can be seen bellow:

The Effects of Depression

  1. Running away

Many depressed teens run away from home or talk about running away. Such attempts are usually a cry for help.

  1. Self-injury

Cutting, burning, and other kinds of self-mutilation are almost always associated with depression.

  1. Violence

Some depressed teens (usually boys who are the victims of bullying) become violent. As in the case of the Columbine school massacre, self-hatred and a wish to die can erupt into violence and homicidal rage.

  1. Suicide

Teens who are seriously depressed often think, speak, or make “attention-getting” attempts at suicide. Suicidal thoughts or behaviors should always be taken very seriously.

  1. Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness

A bleak outlook—nothing will ever get better and there’s nothing you can do to improve your situation.

CHAPTER III

 

DISCUSSION

In this chapter we are going to discuss about the symptoms, causes and effects of depression which is undergone by the main character. There are many symptoms, causes and effects of depression. Our group will give description about each evidence which show the symptoms, causes and effects of depression undergone in Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens.

 

3.1 The Symptoms and The Causes of Depression Undergone in Oliver Twist

Evidence 1

But despite this tender Christian care by the Christian authorities Oliver did reach his ninth birthday. He was celebrating this, locked in the coal cellar, when Mr. Bumble, the beadle, arrived. Oliver and his friends had been beaten and locked up for complaining of hunger.(Dickens, 2000:5 )

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes appetite or weight changes. Oliver was born in a workhouse, his mother died there the day he was born. Oliver became a parish child. After his birth, he was sent out to live with an old lady(Mrs. Mann). Oliver trained to live on almost nothing. So, he seems so thin. His face is looked so pale. Because he is in a big a hunger. Then his complaining of hunger means that he never gets enough food to eat.

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes social isolation.

As he is locked in the coal cellar just because of his complaining of hunger( He traits to live on almost nothing, even though in his ninth birthday he finds nothing to eat).

 

 

Evidence 2

 

At the workhouse Oliver met the board. They quickly decided he was a fool. Oliver had been frightened and so did not answer his name clearly enough for them. He was told to start work early the next morning. (Dickens, 2000:7)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes loss of interest. Although the board never meet him before. They quickly decides him as a fool boy. That situation makes him uncomfortable with everything around him( the atmosphere, the people and the activities).

 

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes social isolation. The new situation makes him uncomfortable especially after he decides as a fool boy in his new workhouse at their first time meet. He scares with almost everybody there. So, he nervous and can’t answer his name clearly when they ask him.

 

Evidence 3

. . . He(Oliver) thought about what he had been told if he complained. He would be sent to sea. To be sent to sea in Oliver’s time meant the captain could log him to death or knock his brains out with an iron bar for even a very small mistake.

With these thoughts in his head Oliver entered the undertaker’s shop. It was closing time. (Dickens, 2000:11)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes self-loathing. As he had been told if he complains, he will be sent to the sea. And he really know what does “to be sent to the sea” mean. Then because of his complaining of hunger to Mrs. Mann, he is sent out to Mr. Bumble. And now, he is leased to Mr. Sowerbury with the same reason.

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes recent stressful life event. As we pay attention to that quotation, when he really understands what is “to be sent to the sea” meant. He feels so scare to complain of food for the next time.

 

 

Evidence 4

. . . He (Noah) teased Oliver whenever he could. Oliver tolerated a lot from Noah but he did not, however, tolerate the following episode:

Hey you!” cried Noah. “ Your mother was awful.”

What did you say?” asked Oliver.

A real bad sort!” continued Noah. “And it’s good she died when she did other wise she would have been transported.”

Oliver went deep red with anger, stood up, knocked over a chair and jumped on Noah. He hit Noah so hard that Noah fell down. …

(Dickens, 2000:13)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes unexplained aches and pains. Because Oliver loves his mother very much, even though they never knows each other (his mother died in the day he was born). When Noah always teases him(by mocking Oliver’s mother), that is really hurtful for Oliver.

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes stressful live event in Mr. Sowerbury’s workhouse. Because Noah as his boss always teases him(by mocking Oliver’s mother) whenever he can. Although Oliver is tolerant but Noah doesn’t, so he hits him.

 

Evidence 5

Mr. Sowerbury now returned. He liked Oliver but his wife was angry and Mr. Bumble looked very strict so he had no choice but to take Oliver out of the cellar and beat him. This beating was followed by another one from his wife, who then sent Oliver into a back room for the rest of the day. (Dickens, 2000:15)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes concentrations problems. Oliver makes Mrs. Sowerbury and Mr. Bumble angry, because Oliver hits Noah (Oliver is angry to Noah. Noah always teases Oliver by mocking his mother). Mrs. Sowerbury tries to stop it, but she can’t because Oliver has deep of anger. That situation stops when everyone is tired.

 

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes childhood trauma or abuse. After Oliver looks in the cellar Oliver also get bits, not only from Mr. Sowerbury but also from Mrs. Sowerbury and Mr. Bumble. After that also sent into a back room for the rest of the day. The conclusion is Oliver’s life is not treated rightly from his bosses.

 

 

Evidence 6.

He had for the London road as quickly as he could. London. In that big city even Mr. Bumble would not find him.

He got to London seven days later. He was completely exhausted. He had slept in fields. He had begged for food and spent his penny on a piece of bread. (Dickens, 2000:16)

 

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes feeling of helplessness, hopelessness and irritability or restlessness. Because Oliver just holding a bundle of clothes and a one-penny when he goes to London. He spent his penny for a piece of bread, he has no money left. After seven days long walk, without any food even more money anymore, he completely exhausted.

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes stressful live event. Oliver completely exhausts after his long journey. He has no food, drink, or anything left to get that. He just begs for food from everybody he meet. Until he is sleep in the fields because of his exhausted.

 

 

Evidence 7

In an instant Oliver understood everything. The jewels, the handkerchiefs, the watches. THE GAME. But there was one thing he did not understand, until it was too late. Like Dodger and Charley, he should have run away. Dodger and Charley were gone in a second down a side street, taking with them what they had stolen. Oliver moved only when the gentleman turned to look at him. That was too late because everyone now believed that he was the thief.

(Dickens, 2000:24-25)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes concentration problems. Because his mind just focuses on the game that playing by Dodger and Charley. That game is very interesting at home. Until they playing it in the book shop, Oliver suddenly realize that it is the crime. But he is too late to think to run away.

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes stressful live event. He never realizes before that game is a crime, until it happen in the bookshop. He has to choose the right way, the best decision, to run away or not as like Dodger and Charley, who had run away before him. But unfortunately the gentleman look at him and think that he is the thief. So, every one now believe that he is a thief and tries to catch him.

 

Evidence 8

 

 

They belong to Mr. Brownlow,“ cried Oliver, trying to wriggle free. His hands had been tied and he was now lying on the floor. “He will think that I stole them. You are not to take them. You must give them back. They were all so kind to me. Keep me here all my life if you want, but please send the books back.” (Dickens, 2000:46)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes concentration problem. Oliver makes the best decision (he feels responsibility for Mr. Brownlow’s trust to sent the massage). So, he tries to wriggle free of his hands. He also tell them what his thinking of (to brings the massage back). He is ready take the risk, even more they kill him.

 

 

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes stressful live event. Because Mr. Brownlow wants him to sent a message and a notes to somebody. But unfortunately Bill and Nancy kidnaps him and takes him to their place. His hand ties and lying on the floor. When he begs to return it to Mr. Brownlow(he has to choose the right way), but no bodies ignore him.

 

 

 

Evidence 9

Yes”, said Oliver, looking at the gun which Sikes was pointing at him.

You’re coming with me, aren’t you?”, he asked.

Yes”, mumbled Oliver.

Without any noise?”, asked Bill.

Yes”, replied the terrified Oliver. (Dickens, 2000:53)

 

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes feeling of hopelessness and helplessness. Because he can’t do anything to make him free, moreover when Shikes is pointing the gun at him. He realizes that no body, even Nancy can’t help him.

 

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes stressful live events. Because he has no choice with the gun in his head and no friend to fight them, especially with Shike’s gun on his head. So, he just does as they said.

 

 

Evidence 10

Oh, please don’t make me to do this,” he begged Sikes. Sikes pointed the pistol at Oliver’s head.

Now listen”, whispered Shikes. “I am going to put you through there. Go softly up the steps in the cellar, along the hall to the front door and open it. Quietly! Take this lantern with you,” said Sikes.

(Dickens, 2000:54)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. Oliver begs for his freedom to Shikes. Because in his deepest heart he doesn’t want to do that, but he does with Bill’s control. Especially with the gun at his heat.

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes childhood trauma or abuse. He is too young when all of that happen to him. He has many pressures and suicides from his boss (the owner of the workhouses), from every one around the book store, from the policeman, from the thieves and the hardest one is from Shikes, who always points the gun on his head to fear him.

3.2 The Effects of Depression Undergone in Oliver Twist

Evidence 1

But despite this tender Christian care by the Christian authorities Oliver did reach his ninth birthday. He was celebrating this, locked in the coal cellar, when Mr. Bumble, the beadle, arrived. Oliver and his friends had been beaten and locked up for complaining of hunger.(Dickens, 2000:5 )

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes violence. First, he trains to live on almost nothing with Mrs. Mann. And the second, he is locked in the coal cellar by Mrs. Mann. The conclusion is Mrs. Mann hasn’t treated him well.

 

Evidence 2

At the workhouse Oliver met the board. They quickly decided he was a fool. Oliver had been frightened and so did not answer his name clearly enough for them. He was told to start work early the next morning. (Dickens, 2000:7)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes violence. Because he scares (with everything around him, such as the board, whose quickly decides he is a fool, the uncomfortable atmosphere and so on) in that moment, he answers his name not clearly. So the next morning he must start work early than the others.

 

 

Evidence 3

But Oliver knew he was lucky. He might have gone to sea or have been hired out to a chimney seep. It was well-known that a chimney sweep’s boy did not live very long. Many were burned or choked to death when cleaning the chimneys of the rich people.(Dickens, 2000:12)

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. He feels helplessness, because he know no one never help him if he complain again. Then he also feels hopelessness, because he feels hopeless in his life, for all of his disappointed moments. As he realizes that it is the best thing that he can get there. So he just thank full for that, better than death.

 

Evidence 4

This little episode stopped only when all were tired. I must add that Mrs. Sowerbury and Noah got tired long before Oliver. But Mrs. Sowerbury and Noah did, finally, get Oliver into the cellar.(Dickens, 2000:13-14)

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes self injury. Because he really realizes that his act (jump on Noah and bits him) will got hard consequence. It means the punishment waiting for him. The fact is Mr. and Mrs. Sowerbury hits him, Mr. Bumble also do that to him. He also sent to a back room for the rest of the day. Its really hard to forget it. But in his mind it’s equal with Noah’s action to him.

Evidence 5

 

Early the next morning Oliver decided to run away. As soon as it was light he opened the door to the street and stepped out to freedom. He was holding a bundle of clothes and a one-penny piece he had given by Mr. Sowerbury. Mr. Sowerbury had given Oliver that penny one day when Oliver especially helpful at a funeral.(Dickens :16)

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes running away. After all that happens he think to run from there. He can’t hold all that things around him (the situations makes him uncomfortable, his boss that never treats him rightly. From bits until lock him into the cellar, the terrible foods and so on) .

 

 

Evidence 6

He sat in the doorway of a shop. He believed his last hour had come. Someone dressed in very fancy clothes spoke to him. The boy’s name was Jack Dawkins, or as his friends – and enemies – called him : The Artful Dodger. (Dickens, 2000:16)

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. After his long journey which less of rest, food and drink, until his last power he can’t do anything except sitting in the doorway and begs for any help before his death.

 

Evidence 7

After quite a chase Oliver was stopped by a punch on the mouth. He lay covered with mud and dust, bleeding from the mouth. The gentleman was dragged and pushed forward to identify Oliver. (Dickens, 2000:25)

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes violence. Because he gets a punch on the mouth for stopping his escaping of the people who had accused Oliver as the thief. After that the gentleman also drag and push forward him to identify Oliver.

 

Evidence 8

Oliver looked around desperately. He slipped free, jumped up and tried to run out of the door. He screamed for help. His voice only echoed into the big old house. He ran outside but was quickly followed by Fagin and the two boys. (Dickens, 2000:47)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes running away. After he slipped free, he runs to the door and screams for help. He want to gets attention from anybodies outside the house. Unfortunately Fagin and two boys quickly catches him before he leaves that house.

 

Evidence 9

Nancy watched them go out into the dark night, and felt very sad. From that night Oliver would be a thief. If he told anyone what really happened to him. Bill would certainly shoot him in the back of the head.

(Dickens, 2000:53)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. Because from all of that happens he can’t do anything, if he tries to run away he will killed by Fagin and his friends. So, he just does what they told.

 

Evidence 10

Oliver decided that, even if he died in the attempt, he would rush up into the hall and make enough noise to wake up the sleeping people in the house. (Dickens, 2000:54)

 

It can be indicated that Oliver Twist undergoes suicide. After he gets in that rich house, he decides to wake-up all of the people in the house, even thought he will be caught by the owner of the house or die in the attempt. Even if he is back to the thief after do that thing, he’s ready t die in their hands (or with the Shike’s gun).

 

 

CHAPTER IV


CONCLUSION

 

After the writers analyze the evidences and base on the findings, we conclude that depression is a state of low mood. There are seven symptoms of depression those are feelings of helplessness and hopelessness, loss of interest in daily activities, appetite or weight changes, irritability or restlessness, self-loathing, unexplained aches and pains, concentration problems. The dominant symptom is feelings of helplessness and hopelessness.

 

He had no one of any shelter in his live. He had no parents, he had no family that he know for the last he just know that Mr. Brownlow is his grandfather. The deep hopelessness that goes along with depression can make the suicide feel such as the only way to escape the pain. In this case we focus on Oliver Twist as our main character who always tries to get his freedom. It also help the writers in analyzing of causes and effect of Oliver Twist’s depression. Oliver Twist undergoes loneliness, social isolation, stressful life events, childhood trauma or abuse as the causes. The dominant causes is stressful life event, because he got so many things that make him in a deeper stress.

 

And the last, for the effects undergoes in Oliver Twist are running away, self-injury, violence, suicide, feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. The dominant effect is violence and feeling of helplessness and hopelessness. All of that effects has the positive and negative side for Oliver. But almost of that effect gives negative effect for him.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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